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Airway hydration & health

The following peer-reviewed publications are a compendium of scientific literature on airway hydration and health. Select a year below to learn more.

2020 (2)

Journal of fluids and structures

Influence of water spraying on an oscillating channel. Journal of Fluids and Structures, Elsevier

A Bouvet, X Pelorson, A van Hirtum

Published 02/01/2020

Looks at the influence of homogeneous water spraying on an oscillating channel is investigated experimentally using several vocal folds replicas. Changes to glottal flow features are systematically quantified for a rigid replica with forced oscillation. Changes to auto-oscillation features are systematically quantified by analyzing the pressure measured upstream from deformable replicas

Relationship between biometeorological factors and the number of hospitalizations due to asthma. Sci Rep

A. Romaszko-Wojtowicz, I. Cymes, E Dragańska. et al.

Published 06/12/2020

An assessment of relations between the frequency of asthma exacerbation and environmental conditions was made according to the meteorological components, the biometeorological index UTCI (Universal Thermal Climate Index), as well as selected air quality parameters, including concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5.

2019 (6)

Respiratory Research

Exhaled particles and small airways. Respir Res

B. Bake, P. Larsson, G. Ljungkvist, et al.

Published 01/11/2019

Analyzing the content of exhaled particles as generated by the airway reopening mechanism, offers an exciting noninvasive way to obtain samples of RTLF from small airways. Results from a few early and small clinical studies on COPD, asthma and BOS indicate associations with altered particle formation and particle composition.

Aqueous Microdroplets Containing Only Ketones or Aldehydes Undergo Dakin and Baeyer-Villiger Reactions. Chem. Sci.

Dan Gao, Feng Jin, Jae Kyoo Lee, Richard N. Zare.

Published 11/12/2019

It was found that increasing the content of water and decreasing the droplet size improve the product yield of the Dakin and BV reactions, supporting the contention that the amount of H2O2 generated in aqueous microdroplets could induce the two reactions and the reactions occur at or near the air–water interface of the microdroplet surface.

Low ambient humidity impairs barrier function and innate resistance against influenza infection. PNAS 116:10905–10

E. Kudo, E. Song, L.J. Yockey, T. Rakib, P.W. Wong, et al..

Published 04/04/2019

It was found that inhalation of dry air impairs mucociliary clearance, innate antiviral defense, and tissue repair. Moreover, disease exacerbated by low relative humidity was ameliorated in caspase-1/11–deficient Mx1 mice, independent of viral burden. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that induction of IFN-stimulated genes in response to viral infection was diminished in multiple cell types in the lung of mice housed in low humidity condition. These results indicate that exposure to dry air impairs host defense against influenza infection, reduces tissue repair, and inflicts caspase-dependent disease pathology.

Spontaneous Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide from Aqueous Microdroplets, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci (US)

Jae. Kyoo Lee, et al.

Published 07/22/2019

This showed that H2O2 is spontaneously produced from pure water by atomizing bulk water into microdroplets (1 μm to 20 µm in diameter). Production of H2O2, as assayed by H2O2-sensitve fluorescence dye peroxyfluor-1, increased with decreasing microdroplet size.

Mechanistic insights into the effect of humidity on airborne influenza virus survival, transmission, and incidence. J. R. Soc. Interface

Published 01/16/2019

This re-evaluates studies of influenza virus survival in aerosols, transmission in animal models and influenza incidence to show that the combination of temperature and RH is equally valid as AH as a predictor. Collinearity was considered, as higher levels of AH are only possible at higher temperatures, where it is well established that virus decay is more rapid.

The effect of hydration on voice quality in adults: a systematic review, J Voice

Published 01/01/2019

This study is aimed to critically appraise scientific, peer-reviewed articles, published in the past 10 years on the effects of hydration on voice quality in adults.

2018 (2)

Clinical and Translational Allergy

The impact of cold on the respiratory tract and its consequences to respiratory health. Clin Transl Allergy

M. D’Amato, A. Molino, G. Calabrese, L. Cecchi, I. Annesi-Maesano, G. D’Amato.

Published 05/30/2018

There is a need to better define the consequences of repeated exposure to cold air and the mechanisms by which such exposure could modify airway function and affect the outcomes of patients with pre-existing airway disease. This could help to promote adequate policy and public health actions to face the incoming challenges.

The mystery of dry indoor air – An overview. Environment International, Volume 121, Part 2, Pages 1058-1065

P. Wolkoff

Published 10/30/2018

Perceived dry air is among the most abundant complaints in office-like environments. Perceived dry air is elicited by low air humidity aggravating eyes, nose and airways. Perceived dry air may be exacerbated by proto-sensory irritation from air pollutants. Perceived dry air intercorrelated with low air humidity, eye and nose symptoms. Age, certain medication, and nasal diseases exacerbate the perception of dry air.

2017 (1)

Science of the total environment

Indoor temperature and humidity in New York City apartments during winter, Science of The Total Environment

Ashlinn Quinn, Jeffrey Shaman

Published 01/17/2017

Wintertime air in New York City apartments is very dry. Levels of humidity seen here are consistent with increased influenza virus survival. Humidifier ownership was not associated with increased indoor humidity.

2016 (1)

Russian Journal of occupational health

Efficiency of controlled halotherapy in rehabilitation of patients with occupational lung diseases. Med Tr Prom Ekol

Chervinskaya AV, Kotenko KV.

Published 2016

The study was aimed at features and efficiency of controlled halotherapy method in patients with occupational chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). Considerable improvement was seen: for mild COLD-- in 40% of cases, for moderate COLD - in 30%, with general efficiency for these patients of 90 and 85% respectively. Analysis of the results obtained enables to evaluate controlled halotherapy as an effective method of rehabilitation and prevention in occupational COLD patients.

2015 (2)

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Airway hydration and COPD. Cell Mol Life Sci.

A. Ghosh, R.C. Boucher, R. Tarran

Published 06/12/2015

This review highlights the cellular components responsible for maintaining MCC and how this process is disrupted following tobacco exposure and with CB. Existing therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic bronchitis and how components of the MCC can be used as biomarkers for the evaluation of tobacco or tobacco-like-product exposure are also discussed.

Duration of action of hypertonic saline on mucociliary clearance in the normal lung. J Appl Physiol 118: 1483–1490

Bennett WD,Wu J, Fuller F, Balcazar JR, Zeman KL, Duckworth H, Donn KH, O’Riordan TG, Boucher RC and Donaldson SH.

Published 06/15/2015

Assesses the duration of pharmacodynamic effects of HS in healthy subjects by performing radiotracer clearance studies at baseline, 30-min post-HS administration, and 4-h post-HS administration.

2014 (2)

Experimental Dermatology

On the role of environmental humidity on cortisol production by epidermal keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol, 23: 15-17

Guo Zhu, Zorica Janjetovic, Andrzej Slominsk.

Published 01/01/2014

... skin can act as an independent steroidogenic organ. The role of this regulated steroidogenic system in physiological or pathological outcomes requires further studies with focus on cutaneous homeostasis, formation of epidermal barrier, antimicrobial activity and display of immune (both pro- and anti-inflammatory) properties.

A review of halotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis.

Rashleigh R, Smith SM, Roberts NJ.

Published 02/21/2014

This review critically evaluates and summarizes the evidence for the use of halotherapy as a treatment for COPD.

2012 (3)

How much water is lost during breathing? Pneumonol

How much water is lost during breathing? Pneumonol. Alergol. Pol. 80, 3: 339–342

J. Zieliński, J. Przybylski.

Published 2012

Using the Antoine equation and the ideal gas law, the volume of exhaled water was calculated. Air temperature, humidity and minute ventilation had been taken accounted for and during physical exercise the amount of exhaled H(2)O is linear, but not proportional to heart rate.

Frontiers in Physiology

Why Do We have to Move Fluid to be Able to Breathe. Front Physiol. 3,146

M. Fronius, W.G. Clauss, M. Althaus.

Published 05/22/2012

The review highlights the importance of the alveolar fluid, its volume and its composition. Maintenance of the fluid volume and composition within certain limits is critical to facilitate gas exchange.We propose that the alveolar fluid is an essential element of the air-blood barrier

Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis. The Scientific World Journal. Volume 2012, Article ID 465230

Reeves ER, Molloy K et al and McElvaney

Published 05/03/2012

This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

2011 (1)


Mechanisms and applications of hypertonic saline. J R Soc Med

Elkins MR, Bye PT.

Published 07/01/2011

Hypertonic saline is a strong sterile solution of salt water that can be inhaled as a nebulized medication for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). To examine how it should be applied clinically, the mechanisms by which it affects the disease process, and which signs, symptoms and other clinical outcomes it influences were considered. Finally, how the effect is influenced by the dose received, and whether this should influence how it is applied in clinical practice were also considered.

2010 (1)


Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections.

Kassel JC, King D, Spurling GK.

Published 03/17/2010

Systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of saline nasal irrigation in treating the symptoms of acute URTIs.

The role of hydration in vocal fold physiology. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 18(3): 171–175

M. Sivasankar and C. Leyden

Published 06/01/2010

Increased systemic and superficial vocal fold hydration as a component of vocal hygiene may improve overall health and efficiency of the vocal apparatus. However, continued exploration of biological mechanisms regulating vocal fold hydration is needed to optimize clinical hydration interventions.

2008 (1)

Influence of gender and body composition on hydration and body water spaces. Clin. Nutr. 27, 740–746

P. Ritz, S. Vol, G. Berrut, I. Tack, M.J. Arnaud and J. Tichet, J.

Published 10/01/2008

This study provides reference values for body water spaces in healthy adults that are negatively correlated with BMI. Women and obese people display indicators of cellular dehydration, and are more at risk of dehydration.

2007 (2)

Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature. PLoS Pathog 3(10): e151

Anice C Lowen , Samira Mubareka, John Steel, Peter Palese.

Published 10/19/2007

Using the guinea pig as a model host, we show that aerosol spread of influenza virus is dependent upon both ambient relative humidity and temperature. We provide direct, experimental evidence to support the role of weather conditions in the dynamics of influenza and thereby address a long-standing question fundamental to the understanding of influenza epidemiology and evolution.

Why inhaling salt water changes what we exhale. J Colloid Interface Sci 307(1), 71-78

W. Watanabe W.

Published 03/01/2007

We find that inhaling salt water diminishes subsequently exhaled biomaterial in man and animals due to reversible stabilization of the airway lining fluid (ALF)/air interface as a novel potential means for control of the spread of airborne infectious disease. The mechanism of this phenomenon relates to charge shielding of mucin or mucin-like macromolecules that consequently undergo gelation; this gelation alters the physical properties of the ALF surface and reduces its breakup.

2004 (1)

Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(50), 17383-17388

D. A. Edwards, et al.

Published 12/14/2004

We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these “high-producer” individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 ± 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension.

1999 (1)

Total body water data for white adults 18 to 64 years of age: the Fels Longitudinal Study. Kidney Int. 56, 244–252

W.C. Chumlea, S.S. Guo, C.M.. Zeller, N.V. Reo, N. V., and R.M. Siervogel

Published 07/01/1999

Total body water (TBW) volume is reported to decrease with age, but much of the published data are 20 to almost 50 years old and are cross-sectional. The findings from these mixed longitudinal data indicate that TBW volume, on average, maintains a reasonable degree of stability in men and women through a large portion of adulthood.

1993 (1)

Fluid Dynamics of the Human Larynx and Upper Tracheobronchial Airways. Aerosol Science and Technology. 19:2, 133-156

Martonen TB, Zhang Z & Lessmann RC.

Published 01/04/1993

An original theory is presented for the simulation of laryngeal and tracheobronchial fluid dynamics. The mathematical model describes conditions in such respiratory tract airways of adult human subjects under various breathing conditions.The data indicate that the larynx exerts a pronounced influence on flows in distal airways. Fluid motion in the trachea and main bronchi include convective core flows with countercurrents along airway walls. The effects of these flow patterns may be to promote particle deposition at select sites within the larynx and tracheobronchial airways.

1988 (2)

The effect if viscosity changes in the vocal folds on the range of oscillation. Journal of Voice, 1, 320-325 (1988)

B.K Finklehor, I.R Titze, and P.L Durham

Published 10/21/1988

Changes in vocal fold oscillation threshold pressure were induced in excised canine larynges by experimentally causing fluid movement into and out of the vocal folds. A range of oscillation threshold pressures was measured for each condition of hydration by varying length and glottal width. Decreased hydration (increased viscosity) raised the threshold of oscillation, and increased hydration (decreased viscosity) lowered the threshold of oscillation.

Breathing dry air causes acute epithelial damage and inflammation of the guinea pig trachea. J. Appl. Physiol. 64:1851–57

J.P. Barbet, M. Chauveau, S. Labbe, A. Lockhart.

Published 05/01/1988

Study investigated whether breathing dry air is capable of causing structural changes of the airways mucosa. The data demonstrated that a short exposure of the trachea to dry air causes marked epithelial lesions and local inflammation.